Cloud refers to large internet services like Google and Yahoo! etc., that use 10000s of machines. Most recently though, cloud computing refers to services by these companies that let external customers rent computing cycles on their clusters.

Hadoop is an open-source Cloud computing environment that implements the Google MapReduce framework in Java which can be used to handle huge set of data that ranges upto pete-byte(PB). MapReduce makes it very easy to process and generate large data sets on the cloud. Using MapReduce, you can divide the work to be performed into smaller chunks, where multiple chunks can be processed concurrently. You can then combine the results to obtain the final result. MapReduce enables one to exploit the massive parallelism provided by the cloud and provides a simple interface to a very complex and distributed computing infrastructure. By modeling a problem as a MapReduce problem, we can take advantage of the Cloud computing environment provided by Hadoop .

MapReduce is used At yahoo! for Web map,Spam detection,Network analysis and Click through optimization; At facebook for Data mining,Ad optimization and Spam Detection;At Google for Index construction,Article clustering for news and Statistical machine translation.

Fig:Hadoop core

In HDFS data is organized into files and directories ,files are divided into uniform sized blocks(default 128MB),blocks are replicated (default 3 replicas) and distributed to handle hardware failure ,replication for performance and fault tolerance (Rack-Aware placement), HDFS exposes block placement so that computation can be migrated to data and it has Checksum for detecting corruption.

I used MapReduce for my project, “Find the best restaurant in the USA – from review comments”. Tasks were quite simple.

First, used a python crawler to extract the data from the web and put into a text document, it was a huge set of data.

Second, used PoS(Parts of Speech) tool to extract the key words, this was crucial step as we were supposed to find best restaurant .

Finally, run the MapReduce job on the data. We used PIG on top of hadoop to make things easier for us and multinode cluster was used to make computation faster.


My Virtual Experience…

Alight! All of us have used different OS on our local machine(it may be win7 along with xp or fedora).Every time when we wan to run any application on the other OS we have to reboot the system then keep pressing down arrow ,select the required OS so that it can be booted.Tedious isn’t it…??!!

Lets make it simpler by making use of virtualization.Virtualization lets you run multiple virtual machines on a single physical machine, with each virtual machine sharing the resources of that one physical computer across multiple environments. Different virtual machines can run different operating systems and multiple applications on the same physical computer.Start by eliminating the old “one server, one application” model and run multiple virtual machines on each physical machine.Today let’s see how we can use VMWare Player to experience the power of virtualization in our local machine.You can download it here.

Once you complete the installation it would ask you to reboot.After rebooting run VMware player  the following window will be displayed…

Here in select “create new Virtual Machine” when it asks for the source from where to install select “i will install OS later” and hit next. Select Linux as “guest OS “

and go next now give name of the virtual machine you want to create browse the location where it is located and hit next.
Here also no problem just hit next again, now you have to “customize your hardware “  it has many option just remove whichever you don’t need and adjust the RAM based on your machine RAM  capacity and hit next at this point of installation it may take few minutes please be patient. This completes the creation of your virtual machine.
Now onwards every time you don’t have to reboot your machine to run a Linux based app or some other, just start you machine by clicking on VMware player and selecting your virtual machine.

some of the major benefits of Virtualization:

Just like a physical computer, a virtual machine hosts its own guest operating system and applications, and has all the components found in a physical computer (motherboard, VGA card, network card controller, etc). As a result, virtual machines are completely compatible with all standard x86 operating systems, applications and device drivers, so you can use a virtual machine to run all the same software that you would run on a physical x86 computer.

While virtual machines can share the physical resources of a single computer, they remain completely isolated from each other as if they were separate physical machines. Isolation is an important reason why the availability and security of applications running in a virtual environment is far superior to applications running in a traditional, non-virtualized system.

A virtual machine is essentially a software container that bundles or “encapsulates” a complete set of virtual hardware resources, as well as an operating system and all its applications, inside a software package. Encapsulation makes virtual machines incredibly portable and easy to manage.You can move and copy a virtual machine from one location to another just like any other software file, or save a virtual machine on any standard data storage medium, from a pocket-sized USB flash memory card to an enterprise storage area networks (SANs).

Hardware Independence
Virtual machines are completely independent from their underlying physical hardware.We can configure a virtual machine with virtual components (eg, CPU, network card, SCSI controller) that are completely different from the physical components that are present on the underlying hardware. Virtual machines on the same physical server can even run different kinds of operating systems (Windows, Linux, etc).Use Virtual Machines as the Building Blocks of your Virtual Infrastructure.



Twenty-five years ago, on Nov. 20, 1985, Microsoft introduced its first version of Windows to the world. Not many people outside the technical press or the tech industry took notice. Product launch events that cost hundreds of millions of dollars were still years away.

What’s changed in Windows in the last 25 years? Plenty!

An Image gallery of various faces of Windows:

1985: Windows 1.0

Windows started in 1981 as a project called Interface Manager and experienced a series of delays getting out of the gate. When it was finally released in late 1985 as Windows 1.0, it made a ripple, not a splash. It had to be run on top of DOS, few applications were written for it, and application windows couldn’t be overlapped (they had to be tiled).

1987: Windows 2.0

Windows 2.0 was released in the late fall of 1987, two years after the debut of Windows 1.0. New features in Version 2.0 included the ability to overlap application windows and improved memory use. Windows 2.0 was notable for another reason as well — on March 17, 1988, Apple Computer sued Microsoft, claiming that the look and feel of the Macintosh operating system was covered by copyright, and that Windows 2.0 violated that copyright. (Several years later, the case was resolved in Microsoft’s favor.)

1990: Windows 3.0

Windows 3.0, released in 1990 — and its successor, Windows 3.1, released in 1992 — offered the first evidence that Windows might become the world’s dominant desktop operating system. Windows 3.0 also allowed Windows applications to use more memory than was available in RAM by swapping RAM temporarily to the hard disk. Windows 3.0 also included what may be one of the greatest productivity-sappers in the history of computers — the game of Solitaire.

1993: Windows NT 3.1

Windows NT 3.1, released in July 1993, was built for businesses rather than consumers and was designed to be more secure and stable. It used a 32-bit rather than a 16-bit architecture.

1995: Windows 95

Windows 95, released in August 1995, combined DOS with Windows for the first time: Rather than installing Windows on top of DOS, you installed only Windows 95, which included both DOS and Windows. It was also the first consumer version of Windows that began moving away from a 16-bit architecture and toward a 32-bit one; in other words, it was a mix of 32-bit code and 16-bit code.

The operating system introduced many interface improvements, including several that live to this day, such as the taskbar and the Start menu. Support for file names longer than eight characters was added as well. It was far more stable than previous versions of Windows and was the first to support Intel’s Plug and Play standard, which was designed to make it easier to add hardware and peripherals to your PC; the idea was that Windows would automatically recognize and configure attached hardware. It was a step forward, but it didn’t always work — some people referred to it as “plug and pray.”

Windows 95 was notable for another reason as well — the massive marketing campaign that accompanied its launch was said to have cost $300 million and included purchasing the rights to the Rolling Stones song “Start Me Up” as the Windows 95 theme song; draping a 300-foot Windows 95 banner over Toronto’s CN Tower; lighting the Empire State Building with Microsoft’s corporate colors of yellow, red and green; and creating a promotional instructional video that featured Jennifer Aniston and Matthew Perry from the hit TV show Friends.

1998: Windows 98

Windows 98, released in June 1998, was as not as big a step forward over Windows 95 as Windows 95 had been over Windows 3.1. Rather, it made incremental changes to Windows, although there were a few significant additions.

The most notable had to do with Internet support. For the first time, the Winsock specification — which provides TCP/IP support for Windows — was built directly into the operating system, rather than having to be installed as an add-on. Also for the first time, Internet Explorer was included as part of the operating system, which eventually led to the U.S. Justice Department’s prosecution of Microsoft for antitrust violations.

2000: Windows 2000

Windows 2000, the successor to Windows NT 4.0, released in February 2000, was intended for business rather than home use, and it was available in several editions, including multiple server versions. It brought many features of Windows 98 into the NT line, including Internet Explorer and Plug and Play.

2000: Windows Me

Windows Me (also called Windows Millennium Edition) was released in September 2000 and quickly became one of Microsoft’s most criticized operating systems because of installation problems, bugs and hardware and software incompatibilities. It introduced Windows Movie Maker. Windows Me was the last version of Windows that included the DOS architecture. It lasted little more than a year, until Windows XP was introduced.

2001: Windows XP

Windows XP, released in August 2001, was a breakthrough in several respects. It was the first version of Windows that did not use DOS as part of its underlying architecture, and the first to be offered in both 64-bit and 32-bit editions. XP combined the desktop version of the secure and stable enterprise-oriented Windows NT/2000 line with the consumer-focused Windows line. It was far more stable than previous versions of Windows and featured a significantly revamped interface that was brighter, more colorful and more contemporary-looking. Windows XP introduced a slew of new features, including background themes and remote desktop, which allows a PC to be controlled remotely via the Internet or a network.

Windows XP shipped in multiple versions, most notably Windows XP Home Edition and Windows XP Professional. Even though it was introduced nine years ago, XP remains the most-used version of Windows, and it’s still available as a downgrade option on new PCs that run the Windows 7 Professional or Ultimate editions.

2006: Windows Vista

Windows Vista, released at end of 2006, may well be the most criticized and disliked version of Windows of all time. Released more than five years after Windows XP, Vista faced widespread hardware incompatibilities upon launch and wouldn’t run on older hardware.

Vista’s interface was significantly different from XP’s interface. Most notably, it had a new feature called Windows Aero, a set of visual enhancements that included transparent windows and animations. There were also a variety of other new features, including the Windows Sidebar, Desktop Gadgets, the Windows Photo Gallery and improved search. Some people disliked Vista’s resource-hungry user interface, and those who did like it couldn’t always get it: Many PCs that were sold as “Vista-capable” couldn’t run the full version of Vista, leading to a class-action lawsuit against Microsoft.

2009: Windows 7

Windows 7, released in October 2009, is Microsoft’s current desktop operating system. Many people feel it’s the OS that Windows Vista should have been. It retains the Aero interface and other enhancements from Vista, but rather than adding a slew of new features in Windows 7, Microsoft focused more on fixing the shortcomings of Vista. Windows 7 is generally considered more stable than Vista, and most users upgrading from Vista to Windows 7 did not experience the kinds of hardware problems that they encountered when they upgraded from XP to Vista.

Windows 7 includes many features, such as new ways to work with windows—Snap, Peek, and Shake. Windows Touch makes its debut, enabling you to use your fingers to browse the web, flip through photos, and open files and folders. You can stream music, videos, and photos from your PC to a stereo or TV.
By the fall of 2010, Windows 7 is selling seven copies a second—the fastest-selling operating system in history.
Improvements to the Windows 7 taskbar include live thumbnail previews Improvements to the Windows 7 taskbar include live thumbnail previews
Geek trivia: Windows 7 is evaluated by 8 million beta testers worldwide before it’s released.

What’s next?

No one, including Microsoft, knows the shape that Windows will take in the next 25 years, because there’s simply no way to peer that deeply into the technology future. It’s a good bet, though, that the Windows of 25 years from now will be radically different from today’s version.

In fact, it’s reasonable to expect that there will be greater changes to Windows in the next 25 years than in its first 25 years. That’s the case because, despite all the changes in technology, for the past several decades the personal computer, whether desktop or laptop, has been people’s main computing device. It’s not clear that that will be true in the next 25 years, given the prevalence of smartphones and the increasing popularity of tablets.

Several questions spring to mind: How will Windows accommodate the increasing role of cloud-based software and services in computing? Will operating systems even matter in the future? Will Windows move to a modular model, with pick-and-choose components?

For now, Microsoft isn’t saying. In the meantime, we’ll have our first peek at the future of Windows when the first Windows 8 beta is released sometime this year.For latest updates on windows8 .

Personal Encounters

My School..

Hello everyone.My name is Shravanthi, this is the first time i am blogging online though i am a chronic internet user. As it is my first post i want to start with something which is reason for my today’s existence.To begin with, my school Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Hassan.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya are Indian schools for talented children and form a part of the system of gifted education. The objectives of the scheme are to provide good quality modern education to the children predominantly from rural areas, without regard to their family’s socio-economic condition.

First established in 1985, they are the brain child of the former Prime Minister, Late. Rajiv Gandhi to find and foster talented children from the rural parts of India. They were formerly named as Navodaya Vidyalayas and renamed later as ‘Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas’ in the birth-centenary year of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India. Navodaya Vidyalayas are located all over the country, except in  Tamil Nadu. There are approximately 557 JNVs across India as of now. They offer free education to all students who get selected through the admission process which includes an All India Entrance Exam, held at district level.

Click here to know more about Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas in India.

You might be wondering what is so special in my school.These are the schools which are responsible for the existence of so many lives.In my first post i just wanted to express my gratitude to all those millions of people who had worked and who have been working to support children from remote places of India and for being responsible in shaping a new future for millions of young minds.